Abgeschickt von Martine am 11 September, 2001 um 16:17:19:
Antwort auf: Re: Wie werden Galeeren gerudert? von Martine am 11 September, 2001 um 00:45:56:
Hallo Chris und Nina,
da das Thema noch der Ausweitung bedarf, habe ich hier nochmal ein paar interessante Texte zusammengestellt. Die Links findet ihr immer unter dem Text, falls ihr dort noch weiterforschen wollt.
Besonders toll ist der Felix Fabri Text!
Der beschribt ganz andere Zustände, die sicher nicht rosig waren, aber doch sehr aufschlußreich sind, verglichen mit der Melodramtik der üblichen Technicolor-Klischees!
Über Schiffstypen und Galeeren im allgemeinen:
In Northern Europe, during the early Christian era ships followed Roman designs. War galleys, although they possessed a mast and sail, were basically rowing vessels. Merchant ships were slow, beamy sailing ships designed for cargo capacity rather than speed and maneuverability. Large ships were over 175' long with a beam of 50'. Both types of ships had one mast with a single rectangular sail, and two triangular topsails spread between the yard and masthead, as well as the artemon.
By late Roman times, war galleys had become sharply differentiated from merchant-men by their longer, narrower hulls and prow rams. The wider, deeper hulled merchantmen relied increasingly on the sail and ultimately all-sail vessels came into use. Galleys, however, were not entirely replaced for commerce even in late medieval times. More expensive (because of the larger crews) but more maneuverable, the galley remained the principal ship for peace and war into the High Middle Ages. By the 13th century, Italian galleys were trading in Flanders and England and on the northwest coast of Africa.
A different kind of trireme became the dominant type of late medieval galley. In this type, three oarsmen, each having his own oar, shared the same bench. Instead of piercing the hull along three levels, the oars passed over the wales along the same level in clusters of three. Early modern galleys typically had about 24 banks of oars; their hulls were 36-39 m (120-130 ft) long and just over 6 m (20 ft) wide.
Though the advent of the lateen (fore-and-aft) sail and the stern rudder rendered the galley obsolete for commerce, it retained its military importance into the 16th century. Beginning about 1550, the trireme was replaced by galleys in which four or more oarsmen on the same bench pulled a single large oar. This change accompanied a shift from predominantly free oarsmen to convicts and slaves. Sometimes as many as eight oarsmen were used on each bench. In the Battle of Lepanto (1571), the last great galley fight, some galleys had over 200 oarsmen.
Über die venezianischen Galeeren:
The Venetian "narrow galley", the galea sottile was a dedicated warship equipped with an above-the-waterline ram. The earliest versions apparently were designed as biremes similar to the ancient penteconters, but the later versions were rowed alla zenzile with three men to a bench ("triremi").
In 1294, the Venetian senate decreed the creation of a new type of galley, the "great galley". It would have sufficient breadth and depth of hull to carry a substantial cargo and to allow it to carry a large area of sail, and would also carry a substantial crew of rowers to propel the ship in calm and to serve as marines if the ship were attacked. The galia grossa carried high-value cargo like spices, silks, and rigged as a passenger ship, pilgrims to the Holy Land. The galia grossa was rowed alla zenzile.
Galea de Fiandra (das sind die, die in "Farben des Reichtums" vorkommen)
Venice maintained about half a dozen "Flanders galleys", a variation of the galia grossa. These ships made the difficult journey through the Straits of Gibraltar to London and Bruges to load cargos of Flemish wool cloth.
Galeazza di Lepanto
The large ships that fought in the Battle of Lepanto were galleasses, a warship development of the galia grossa. Much wider in proportion than the fast galleys of ancient and medieval times, they were able to support a large spread of sail and cannons. The galleass was rowed a scaloccio.
Die nächsten beiden aus einer Quelle:
Felix Fabri, "The Wanderings of Felix Fabri," vol. 7 of The Library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 1887-1897, p 125-131.
follows the Dominican Felix Fabri's 1483 tour of the Holy Land:
General description of galleys
The sea hath various and different ships, which are great, middle-sized, and small ones.
A galley is one of the middle-sized kind of seagoing ships, and is not of the greatest, nor yet of the smallest sort. This vessel is named in Latin a "bireme" or a "trireme" [literally "double-banked" or "triple-banked"] É Howbeit, common people, whether they be Germans or Italians, call it a galley. The vessel is given this name because the prow has the shape of a helmet ["galea" in Fabri's Latin], when viewed from the front, and because it meets the waves like an armed man.
A galley is an oblong vessel, which is propelled both by sails and oars. All galleys are alike, or very nearly so, in shape, but differ in size, because some galleys are great ones, which are called "triremes," some small, which are named "biremes"; and there is a further difference, in that some galleys are ships of war, and others are ships of burthen. In my first pilgrimage I went across the sea in a "bireme," but in my second in a "trireme." Now, a bireme is one which is rowed by pairs and pairs of oars [that is, with two rowers per oar]; but a trireme is one which is rowed by threes and threes of oars [that is, with three rowers per oar]. É Now, the galley on board of which I crossed the second time [that is, during this 1483 pilgrimage here related] had sixty cross-benches, and upon each bench three rowers É If [a galley] be equipped as a war-galley it has an archer with his bow [almost certainly a crossbow] on every bench together with the rowers.
Dimensions of Fabri's triple-banked galley
The length was thirty-three cubits, understanding by a cubit as far as a man can reach with both his arms stretched out. This length is the measurement from the prow even to the stern, and the breadth thereof is seven cubits, measuring across the ship just by the mast [from side to side]. But if we were to measure the entire breadth which it has when the oars are put out on either side, then it will be thirteen cubits in width. In height, measuring from the well to the "keba," or truck, which is on the top of the mast and in the round top, it measured more than eighteen cubits.
A Venetian galley's construction and parts
Now, all galleys of the same size are so much alike in all respects that a man who passes from his own galley on board of another would hardly find out that he was on another, except from the officers and crews of the vessels being different, for Venetian galleys are as like one to another as swallows' nests. They are built of the stoutest timbers, and fastened together with many bolts, chains, and irons.
The galley slaves
Lowest of all are the galley-slaves of the first and second class, whom in Latin we call "remiges" or rowers, who sit on the cross-benches to work at the oars. There are a great many of them, and they all are big men; but their labours are only fit for asses, and they are urged to perform them by shouts, blows, and curses. Just as when horses are drawing loaded carts up a steep road, the harder they pull, the more they are urged on, so these wretches, when they are pulling with their utmost strength, are still beaten to make them pull harder. I am weary of writing, and shudder to think of the tortures and punishments of those men: I have never seen beasts of burden so cruelly beaten as they are. They are frequently forced to let their tunics and shirts hang from their girdles, and work with bare backs, arms and shoulders, that they may be reached by whips and scourges.
These galley-slaves are for the most part the bought slaves of the captain, or else they are men of low station, or prisoners, or men who have run away, or been driven out of their own countries, or exiles, or such as are so unhappy that they cannot live or gain a livelihood ashore. Whenever there is any fear of their making their escape, they are secured to their benches by chains. As a rule they are Macedonians, and men from Albania, Achaia, Illyria and Sclavonia [regions of Greece and the Balkans]; and sometimes there are among them Turks and Saracens [Arabs], who, however, conceal their religion. I never saw a German galley-slave, because no German could survive such misery.
They are so accustomed to their misery that they work feebly and to no purpose unless someone stands over them and beats them like asses and curses them. They are fed most wretchedly, and always sleep on the boards of their rowing benches, and both by day and by night they are always in the open air ready for work, and when there is a storm they stand in the midst of the waves.
In general they are thieves, and spare nothing that they find; for which crime they often are most cruelly tortured. When they are not at work they sit and play at cards and dice for gold and silver, with execrable oaths and blasphemies. I never have heard such terrible swearing as on board of the aforesaid vessels, for they do nothing, either in jest or in earnest, without the foulest blasphemies of God and the Saints.
The galley slaves' mercantile activities
Sometimes there are among them some respectable merchants, who subject themselves to this most grievous servitude in order that they may ply their trade in harbours. Some are mechanics, such as tailors or shoemakers, and in their seasons of quiet make shoes, tunics, and shirts on board the ship; some are washermen, and wash shirts on board for hire. Indeed, in this respect all galley-slaves are alike; they are all traders, and everyone of them has something for sale under his bench, which he offers for sale when in harbour, and trading goes on daily amongst them. Moreover they generally know at least three languages, to wit, Sclavonian [Serbo-Croatian], Greek, and Italian, and the greater part of them know Turkish as well.
Even among the galley-slaves there are orders and degrees; for some of them are put in authority over the others, and those who are most trusted are placed as guards round about the gangways of the galley, and are called "guardians." Some are in command of the prow; some on the right-hand side, others on the left-hand side; some serve in the stern, and these are the best treated.
Bei dem Fabri Text finde ich interessant, daß er schon beschreibt, daß die Venezianer gerade von den bezahlten Ruderern des venezianischen Arsenals zu unbezahlter Sklavenarbeit wechseln! Und daß er sehr wohl beschreibt, daß die Ruderer Nebeneinkünfte hatten, sowie lange Zeiten im Hafen!
Also nicht alles den Hollywoodfilmen glauben, Quellen lesen!
kann sich über den Fabri kaum mehr einkriegen...